Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

The Importance of English and How It Can Affect Our Lives

English has become a global language and learning it has become extremely necessary for all of us. It is the most widely used language out of the 4,000 to 5,000 live languages ​​spoken in the world. There are a whopping 350 million native speakers of English. The use of English has become important in our day to day life and therefore a strong hold on the English language has become vital for the success of our lives. A fluent English speaker can expect a lot of things in his life. He can imagine a beautiful foreign girlfriend, a nice car, a lovely house and many more things. Above all, people show a lot of respect to a fluent English speaker.

English is an international language that most of the people are using all over the world. Some of the countries where English is spoken are United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, India, Australia, Pakistan, Mauritius, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka etc. Just imagine how this language can help in communicating with people living in other countries.

Why should we learn English?

After Mandarin, English is spoken by more people than any other language. It is the international language of business, science, and technology, defense (armed forces), engineering, tourism and other departments. With the help of this widely used language, you can travel to different countries and can communicate with them easily. You would not need any translator for this. Moreover if your spoken English is fluent then a good job is waiting for you. People would accept you because of your public speaking abilities. Many of us lack confidence because we do not know effective communication skills but learning this widely used language would solve this problem and make you stand apart from the rest of the competitors. If you are planning to start a business then this language is a must. English is considered as the language of business and therefore proper business planning (especially globally) is ineffective without this language.

Nowadays, most of the multinational companies demand good communication skills in English and if you have the capability to do so then there would be no problems getting a nice job. A good job would mean a good life; a happy family and a respectable position in the society. Such is the power of English language.

How should we learn English?

There are many ways through which you can learn the basics of English Language. You can enroll yourself for spoken English course offered by many educational institutions. The course would make you spend a few thousand rupees but if you opt for English training online then that might be completely free of cost. Google would help you in finding a suitable English learning website. Search with keywords like "learn English", "learning English", "learn English free", "learn English free online" etc. Search results would show you lots of results, you can choose the one that offers the best tutorials and free resources.

Learning English Online

With the advancement of the internet and the popularity of the World Wide Web, learning online has become extremely easy. All you need to have is a computer system with a broadband connection. This would give you the power to access unlimited resources and tutorials for learning English. It is convenient because we can learn English from anywhere and there is no need to buy expensive books. These websites serve more as a library where you have access to tutorials, exercises, videos, other resources free of cost. Just spend 2-3 hours on a daily basis and you can be an expert in this language. Remember complete dedication and a good grasping power is what you require the most. You should be determined to learn English and this determination and zeal would help in making this task of learning possible.

Email Marketing – The Pros And Cons of Marketing With Email

Many small businesses are considering jumping into the world of email marketing. Email marketing has many different advantages, but it also has a few drawbacks that you need to keep in mind. The truth is that when utilized in the correct fashion it can be an extremely powerful and cost effective way of promoting your business and producing more sales. Once you learn about the pros and cons of email, you will be able to begin your own campaigns and get started down the path towards increased success and profitability.

The Advantages of Email Marketing

There are several key benefits to running an email marketing campaign. One of the most important is how cost efficient is can be. There is no other form of direct marketing that is as cheap as email marketing is. A 2005 study by the Winterberry Group found that for every dollar spent on email marketing, $15.50 was earned in return. There is much relevant data pointing to email marketing having a superior ROI than telemarketing, direct mail campaigns, radio or billboard advertisements and more.

Another advantage that email has is that you can quickly get your message across, and you can reach your customers and prospects in a place where they are comfortable communicating. If you have an idea for a new sale or promotion for the upcoming weekend, you can inform all of your customers about that immediately. With print advertising, traditional direct mail or anything else, the turnaround time could be days or possibly even a week or more.

One of the real strengths to running an email campaign is how effectively you can track the results that it produces. You will be able to see every click that is made to your website as a result of the email, and you will be able to see statistics such as how many people read the message, how many times they read it, if they ended up making a purchase and on down the line.

There is no other form of marketing or advertising that produces such an array of in-depth statistics. It’s an invaluable way to track your marketing efforts, and make the most out of every dollar you put into promotion.

Finally, another important advantage to email marketing that you will want to remember is that it’s the perfect way to convert prospects over a long period of time. No matter how great your products or services may be, not every person will be immediately ready to make a purchase or investment. Email marketing is the perfect tool to continue chipping away at those prospects over the long haul. By developing a relationship with each prospect and providing them with useful information, you will gain their trust and stay at the forefront of their mind.

The Disadvantages of Email Marketing

The largest disadvantage of email marketing is that so many people today are fed up with spam. All of our accounts are flooded with wasted emails everyday, and it’s a worldwide plague of the largest scale. Because of this, many people are wary about opening up emails from businesses, or about trusting anything they see in their inbox.

You can help combat this problem by being as transparent as possible. This means making it easy for people to see who is sending your message and what it’s about. It also means ensuring that all of your email addresses are used with permission, and you never purchase a list or steal addresses from another website.

Another disadvantage with email marketing is that far too many small business owners or managers know how to make a campaign work for them. Perhaps they try using gimmicks or copying an email that somebody else sent out. However, a much more effective strategy is sticking within your own identity, playing to your strengths and providing your prospects and customers with exactly what they are looking for.

Making Email Marketing Work for You

The bottom line is that the benefits of email marketing far outweigh the disadvantages. It’s all about learning how to run your own campaigns in the right way, and for maximum success there will be some trial and error as you traverse that path. By not utilizing email campaigns you’re missing out on a huge opportunity to help your business become more efficient and more profitable.

Earn Money From Home Fast

If you're looking for ways on how you can earn money from home fast for you to be able to make an additional income without having to give up your current job or spend more time away from your family and loved ones, you should consider the wide range of jobs that you can get online. These jobs will allow you to earn an amount much more than your previous job.

These types of work opportunities that promises to allow you to earn money from home fast could certainly fulfill your lifelong plans and make your dreams come true because you can earn a great deal of money while being with people that matters to your heart the most. But let it be reminded that your income will still depend on the time you spend for work.

One benefit that a person can get from these works at home jobs is the fact that they do not require you to work 5 days a week for at least 8 hours a day. In fact, a lot of these home jobs could have been done at your own leisure. You can work even for 3 hours if you wish, just as log as you meet your deadline and you deliver your work in good quality.

Another point why people would rather opt for this kind of job is the fact that they can be paid immediately or after every after after work is finished since they can get the fruit of their labor all at once. However, this is not always the case since other employers prefer paying twice a month or once a month depending on what is agreed upon.

Imagine learning more than what you even receive from your regular job. Would not that be so much fun on your part? No need for you to worry about your future because work at home jobs have got that covered for you.